Here is an interesting and surprisingly well done study from the UK on our good friend Creatine Monohydrate. This study has some obvious inadequacies most likely due to dollar cost restriction not preconception or bad science.

Rough outline…….28 experienced sprinters were administered 40, 100 or 135 grams of CM in 5g doses over 4 days. The athletes were then tested in a systematic way to identify changes in repetitive performance. The 100 gram test group (25g/day over 4 days) showed statistically valid performance improvements!

This study only reinforces what we in the practical field already knew, CM works and as a performance enhancer and reasonably quickly. I would love to see if longer “dose loading” produced different results and or if lower dosing over greater duration produced similar responses.

I will continue to search for and catalogue CM related studies and data in hopes of finding the scientific and practical applications for strength athletes. Creatine Monohydrate is one of the few legal compounds still available to the athletic community that consistently shows legitimate performance benefits to strength/power athletes.





Konstantinos Havenetidis1, Ourania Matsouka2 , Carlton Brian Cooke1 and Apostolos Theodorou1

1 Leeds Metropolitan University, School of Leisure and Sports Studies, Leeds, UK
Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Sports Science and P.E., Komotini, GREECE



05 May 2003



03 July 2003



01 September 2003

© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2003) 2, 88-97
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This study aimed to determine the effects of different acute creatine loadings (ACRL) on repeated cycle sprints. Twenty-eight active subjects divided into the control (n=7) and the experimental (n=21) group. The exercise protocol comprised three 30s Anaerobic Wingate Tests (AWT) interspersed with six minutes recovery, without any supplements ingested and following placebo and creatine ingestion, according to each ACRL (40g, 100g and 135g throughout a four-day period). Blood and urinary creatine levels were also determined from the experimental group for each ACRL. Protein intake (across all groups) was held constant during the study. There were no changes in protein intake or performance of the control group. For the experimental group creatine supplementation produced significant (p<0.01) increases in body mass (82.5 ± 1.4kg pre vs 82.9 ± 1.2kg post), blood (0.21 ± 0.04mmol·l-1 pre vs 2.24 ± 0.98mmol·l-1 post), and urinary creatine (0.23 ± 0.09mmol·l-1 pre vs 4.29 ± 1.98mmol·l-1 post). No significant differences were found between the non-supplement and placebo condition. Creatine supplementation produced an average improvement of 0.7%, 11.8% and 11.1% for the 40g, 100g and 135g ACRL respectively. However, statistics revealed significant (p<0.01) differences only for the 100g and 135g ACRL. Mean ± SD values for the 100g ACRL for mean and minimum power were 612 ± 180W placebo vs 693 ± 221W creatine and 381 ± 35W placebo vs 415 ± 11W creatine accordingly. For the 135g ACRL the respective performance values were 722 ± 215W placebo vs 810 ± 240W creatine and 405 ± 59W placebo vs 436 ± 30W creatine. These data indicate that a 100g compared to 40g ACRL produces a greater potentiation of performance whilst, greater quantities of creatine ingestion (135g ACRL) can not provide a greater benefit.


The use of a 100g compared to a 40g acute creatine loading produced a greater and constant potentiation of sprint cycle performance, whilst no significantly greater benefit occurred with the use of a greater dosage (135g). These findings support previous reports that the use of the commonly accepted creatine-loading regimen of 100g may provide ergogenic benefit. Performance potentiation is greater in the first seconds of repeated sprint cycling (even for the low creatine dosage) and progressively diminishes towards the end of a 30s period. This ergogenic pattern could be attributed primary to an elevated pre exercise creatine phosphate concentration and to a lesser extent to a more efficient buffering capacity. Additional research however, should evaluate the use of varying creatine dosages, in relation to body mass, as studies show that sample group specificity seems to affect the magnitude of performance potentiation. 

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